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The possibility of falling into an uncontrollable sleep at any time makes everyday life very difficult. Thus, ordinary activities such as driving can be very dangerous for people with narcolepsy. Like all amphetamines, Adderall speeds up bodily functions. In fact, one of the most common side effects reported among Adderall users is an inability to sleep. Although this side effect can be troublesome for patients taking Adderall to treat the symptoms of ADHD, it produces a much-desired feeling of alertness in people with narcolepsy.

Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents With Alcohol and Other Drug Use Problems

By decreasing the frequency and severity of narcoleptic sleeping episodes, Adderall allows people with this condition more freedom to engage in the activities of normal daily life. Adderall was originally manufactured and prescribed as a weight loss drug called Obetrol. Amphetamines tend to decrease feelings of hunger in people who take them, making them an often-abused drug among dieters.

Amphetamine use for weight loss can be very dangerous. Most doctors agree that the best way to regulate weight is through moderate exercise and a healthy diet. Drugs like Adderall are only available with a doctor's prescription and are rarely used legally for weight control. According to a Pharma Business Week article, "Up to 65 percent of children with ADHD may still exhibit symptoms into adulthood and an estimated 4. Census Bureau information released on January 7, , 4.

Results of a U. The use of Adderall among overstressed high school and college students became a problem in the early s. He explained that "studies conducted by the National Institutes of Health in the late s found that low-dose stimulants increase concentration and alertness in everyone, not just people with attention disorders. Author and physician Edward M. Hallowell has ADD himself.

It's like driving in the rain with bad windshield wipers. Everything is smudged and blurred and you're speeding along, and it's really frustrating not being able to see very well. Or, it's like listening to a radio station with a lot of static and you have to strain to hear what's going on. Or, it's like trying to build a house of cards in a dust storm. You have to build a structure to protect yourself from the wind before you can even start on the cards. Inotherwaysit'slikebeingsuper-chargedall thetime. Yougetoneideaandyouhavetoact on it, and then, what do you know, but you've got another idea before you've finished up with the first one, and so you go for that one, but of course a third idea intercepts the second, and you just have to follow that one, and pretty soon people are calling you disorganized and impulsive and all sorts of impolite words that miss the point completely.

Because you're trying really hard…. Plus which, you're spilling over all the time. You're drumming your fingers, tapping your feet, humming a song, whistling, looking here, looking there, scratching, stretching, doodling, and people think you're not paying attention or that you're not interested, but all you're doing is spilling over so that you can pay attention. I can pay a lot better attention when I'm taking a walk or listening to music or even when I'm in a crowded, noisy room than when I'm still and surrounded by silence…. The adult syndrome of ADD, so long unrecognized, is now at last bursting upon the scene.

Thankfully, millions of adults who have had to think of themselves as defective or unable to get their acts together, will instead be able to make the most of their considerable abilities. It is a hopeful time indeed.

Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents With AOD Use Problems

Side effects, Fatemi stated, range "from stomach pain to insomnia to an irregular heartbeat, and it can even cause brain damage. Many members of the educational community predict that the issue will need to be addressed head on in the coming years. Technically, Adderall is a psychostimulant. As Dr. Robert Hart explained in an article for Drug Topics by pharmacist Katie Rodgers, "Psychostimulants, in a sense, put your foot on the brake and help with the stopping. Patients who take Adderall are better able to ignore distractions and focus solely on the task at hand, whatever that task may be.

The most frequently observed side effect of Adderall is difficulty sleeping. Adderall can also cause nervousness, dizziness, restlessness, rapid heart rate, headache, stomachache, nausea, decreased appetite, weight loss, dry mouth, and skin rashes. A study cited in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry showed that younger patients are more likely to experience a loss of appetite when taking Adderall than older ones.

A two-year study showed reductions in both the average height and the average weight of preteens taking Adderall for their ADHD, according to Sherry Boschert in Pediatric News. Results of the study indicate that higher dosages of Adderall affected the growth rate more than lower doses did.

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Overall, however, the children's growth was slowed by about one-half inch per year. Adderall tends to decrease the appetite, so some scientists believe that the children who take it are not eating as well as they should. This could play a role in their slower gains in height and weight. The human body needs sleep in order to function properly. Sleep deprivation is just one of the many dangers associated with amphetamine use. Frequent use can result in a psychological addiction, which can develop quickly, especially in people who already show signs of depression.

Overdose of amphetamines can result in fever, convulsions, hallucinations, and even death. A Psychopharmacology Update article published in January warned that Adderall can increase the severity of "behavior disturbances and thought disorder in psychotic patients. As a result, people suffering from a psychotic episode can become completely withdrawn from reality.

By the early s, Adderall abuse among high school and college students had become a significant problem. About , of those prescriptions are for Adderall.

Students without ADHD reportedly find it fairly easy to get the drug from fellow students who have a prescription for it. High school students of the early twenty-first century seemed to face increasing pressure to perform well on standardized tests.

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Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents With Alcohol and Other Drug Use Problems

Many students feel like their "entire future may be riding on the results," explained Frances Mejia in an article for CNNfyi. The results of these tests weigh heavily in the college admissions process. Most individuals are exposed to and use addictive drugs for the first time during their teenage years. Individuals with comorbid i.

Epigenetic genes and their products e. The general classes of epigenetic alterations that have been implicated in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance include DNA methylation , histone modifications , and downregulation or upregulation of microRNAs. Chronic addictive drug use causes alterations in gene expression in the mesocorticolimbic projection.

The release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens plays a role in the reinforcing qualities of many forms of stimuli, including naturally reinforcing stimuli like palatable food and sex.

Psychoactive drug

Understanding the pathways in which drugs act and how drugs can alter those pathways is key when examining the biological basis of drug addiction. The reward pathway, known as the mesolimbic pathway , or its extension, the mesocorticolimbic pathway , is characterized by the interaction of several areas of the brain. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter of the reward system in the brain.


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It plays a role in regulating movement, emotion, cognition, motivation, and feelings of pleasure. Excessive intake of many types of addictive drugs results in repeated release of high amounts of dopamine, which in turn affects the reward pathway directly through heightened dopamine receptor activation. Prolonged and abnormally high levels of dopamine in the synaptic cleft can induce receptor downregulation in the neural pathway.


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